Lionel Messi, five-time winner of Europe’s Ballon d’Or, also known as the FIFA World Player of the Year award, turns 30 today. The ace footballer, hailed by many as the best in the world now, has come a long way since the days of being the smallest member of the team, partly due to age and partly due to a growth hormones deficiency.The nights with the needles in his legsMessi has had his share of problems; when he was just 11 years old, it was discovered that he was suffering from a growth hormone deficiency and he would be required to undergo treatment to let him grow. For three years, every single night, Messi stuck needles in his legs. It was only once that his treatment was completed that he started growing properly.Since the treatment was expensive, his father, Jorge went to the club, Newell’s Old Boys, who had shown a keen interest in keeping Messi in their team. Though they took on Messi, the money provided was simply not enough to tide over the financial troubles of the family.The money issues that the family had to undergo due to Messi’s health problem made them travel 10,000 km away from home to Barcelona, where the Barcelona club had promised to pay for his treatment.The whole family stayed in Barcelona for six months and yet, their problems were not over. It was during this time that his decision to play for Barcelona led to a split in the family, wherein his father stayed with him while his mother with his brothers and little sister went back to Rosario.advertisementRest as they say is history, ‘Leo’ is hailed as one of the best players of football.Listed below are some of the interesting facts about the legendary footballer:Interested in General Knowledge and Current Affairs? Click here to stay informed and know what is happening around the world with our G.K. and Current Affairs section.To get more updates on Current Affairs, send in your query by mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
A-League Andrew Nabbout – From unwanted Victory player to Jets A-League star Kieran Francis Last updated 1 year ago 12:55 12/28/17 FacebookTwitterRedditcopy Comments(0) A-League Melbourne Victory v Newcastle Jets Newcastle Jets Melbourne Victory Forced to leave the country to find top-flight football, Andrew Nabbout has earned the right to be among the top players in the A-League As Melbourne Victory captain Mark Milligan raised the 2014-15 A-League championship trophy, Andrew Nabbout could be seen smiling and celebrating on stage.But he wasn’t a player on the day. He was dressed in a suit and wasn’t picked in the squad that beat Sydney FC 3-0 at AAMI Park.In fact, Nabbout only made five league appearances during that season for 35 minutes of pitch time in total — it was clear the writing was on the wall. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Lyon treble & England heartbreak: The full story behind Lucy Bronze’s dramatic 2019 Liverpool v Man City is now the league’s biggest rivalry and the bitterness is growing Megan Rapinoe: Born & brilliant in the U.S.A. A Liverpool legend in the making: Behind Virgil van Dijk’s remarkable rise to world’s best player “It’s always difficult for a young player trying to break through because it’s a club with such big expectations,” Nabbout told Goal.”Any coach is going to put out their strongest 11 to win every week because that’s what is expected and I accepted that.”It kind of made me work harder and keep pushing for a spot, but it wasn’t to be unfortunately.”Nabbout was released by Victory shortly after their championship win but felt other top-flight opportunities would come.They didn’t.”I took a couple of weeks off to rest the body but I was waiting for something to come up. I thought a club would have been interested at that point,” he said.”But unfortunately come the end of October when the new season started there was nothing on. I had a week-long trial with the Mariners which I thought went really well but unfortunately nothing came of it.”Running out of options, Nabbout was presented with an offer to join Malaysia’s Negeri Sembilan, or he could drop back to an NPL club with many keen to take on his services.It was a fall from grace for a player who once single-handedly put Sydney FC to the sword with a brace off the bench, but a step he needed to make if he wanted to continue his career.Nabbout figured he could always return to the NPL if a stint in Malaysia failed, so why not give it a go?The unique move to Malaysia saw Nabbout hit top form in a weaker league, with nine goals and eight assists in 12 games, but more importantly gave him belief in his own ability.”It was a good experience for me because I gained a lot of confidence. The league wasn’t as good as the A-League but it helped me strengthen my attacking game,” Nabbout said.”It helped me realise what my strengths were and work harder on them every week and it was a good league to do that because the standard wasn’t as high as Australia.”Incredibly, Nabbout was released mid-season by Negeri Sembilan despite his stunning record and Newcastle Jets, then coached by Scott Miller, decided to pounce for the 2016-17 seasonHe won the Jets golden boot with eight goals, picked up the members player of the year and started to be mentioned by press for possible Socceroos selection.It was a level of consistency that many thought he didn’t have, and the player himself admits it was the lessons he learned through failure and complacency that helped raise his game.”This time around (at the Jets) I know not to be complacent because at some points I kind of got a little bit comfortable at Victory,” Nabbout said.”They brought in players I didn’t know what to do cause I wasn’t playing as much as what I was.”I took everything I learned about myself in Malaysia, everything I learned in my last year at Victory about not being complacent and working that extra little bit to get ahead — and so far at Newcastle it’s worked.”The Jets have only made the finals in the nine seasons since their only championship in 2007-08, but are sitting pretty currently in second position – five points behind Sydney FC but seven ahead of third-placed Melbourne City.This form has continued on despite a horror injury run that has seen foreign stars Roy O’Donovan and Ronald Vargas be long-term absentees, forcing usual winger Nabbout to be deployed as a central striker.In the unfamiliar role, Nabbout has contributed six goals and five assists in 12 matches, in a Jets attack that has scored 29 times — more than their goal totals for any of the past three campaigns.Having added striker to the positions he can play, Nabbout has pundits calling for a Socceroos selection, but the player himself is remaining grounded.”It’s on the back of every player’s mind. It’s a chance to put yourself in a shop window for the World Cup and of course that’s going to be playing on my mind especially as my name has been mentioned before,” he said.”If I keep playing the way I have been playing recently and hopefully keep going the rest of the season like this then if the call comes, it comes, and I’ll be more than ready and happy to take it.”Until then it’s club football and it’s number one on my mind.”It’s not a bad situation for a player whose only thought two years ago was finding a club full stop.Now he is among the top players in the Australia because of his bravery to make a unique move overseas and willingness to learn.
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Derby fire five past Man Utd U18by Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester United U18s were thrashed 5-1 by Derby County yesterday.Hit by a three-goal, seven-minute Rams salvo in the first half, it was a blow which the Reds couldn’t recover from, despite Mark Helm’s strike providing a glimmer of hope before the interval. Two further Derby goals after the break put the game well out of United’s reach.The trio of Bjorn Hardley, Calen Gallagher-Allison and Hannibal Mejbri – all 16-year-olds – were called up to make their full Under-18 debuts in place of Connor Stanley, the suspended Reece Devine and Will Fish, who had made an impressive bow for the Under-23s against Fulham the previous evening at Leigh.
TORONTO – Barrick Gold Corp. has reported a net loss of US$412 million for the third quarter, well below the US$99 million in net income expected by analysts, after taking a US$405 million impairment charge at a Peruvian mine.The Toronto-based company took the writedown at Lagunas Norte after results from a study on a type of ore treatment led it to shelving the treatment option.Adjusted net earnings for the quarter ending Sept. 30, however, amounted to US$89 million or eight cents per share, above the US$62.7 million or five cents per share expected by analysts, according to Thomson Reuters Eikon.The company reported a net loss of US$11 million for the third quarter last year, and an adjusted net income of US$200 million.Third quarter revenue totalled US$1.84 billion, in line with analyst expectations, but down from the US$2 billion it pulled in for the same quarter last year.In September, the company announced a proposed C$7.9-billion takeover of Randgold Resources that would firmly return its status as the world’s largest gold mining company.Companies in this story: (TSX:ABX)
The rally will start with a vehicle convoy in cooperation with the Peace Region Truck Enthusiasts. Vehicles will cue behind the LNG or BUST bus at 9:45 a.m. The convoy will flag off at the frontage road near the UFA card lock at 10:00 and convoy along the Alaska Highway. The convoy will break up on the return to Fort St. John and proceed to the main rally area at around 10:45.More information about the rally can be found on the Vehicle Rally Facebook event page. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. — Officials with local grassroots organization Fort St. John for LNG will be hosting a truck rally ahead of next weekend’s rally in the Energetic City supporting the development of a liquified natural gas export industry in B.C.FSJ for LNG founder Alan Yu says that the rally is planned for April 21st, a day over two years since its last rally which saw then-Premier Christy Clark make an appearance. The rally will take place at the corner of 100th St. and 96th Ave., in the parking lot of the old Visitor Information Centre. Vivian Krause is set to deliver a keynote address at this year’s rally. Krause is a controversial Vancouver-based blogger and researcher who has received both praise and condemnation for her research into environmental charities in Canada, particularly their source of funding. In addition to hosting her Fair Questions blog, Krause also writes for The Financial Post.
The care Jeremy was last seen driving – RCMP UPDATE – The RCMP advise that Jeremy Ray has been found.BEAVERLODGE, A.B. – RCMP are seeking the public’s assistance to locate 37-year-old Jeremy Ray. Jeremy was last seen on July 29, 2019, and maybe headed to Fort St. John.Jeremy may be travelling in his 2007 black Honda Civic, AB plate: FUD 818.Jeremy is described as:Caucasian male6′, 220 lbs.Brown hair, blue eyesThere is a general concern for his wellbeing. If you have any information on the whereabouts of Jeremy Ray, please contact the Beaverlodge RCMP at 780-354-2485, or call your local police.If you wish to remain anonymous, you can contact Crime Stoppers at 1-800-222-8477 (TIPS), online at www.P3Tips.com or by using the “P3 Tips” app available through the Apple App or Google Play Store.
Tripoli: Forces backing Libya’s unity government battled to push back an offensive by strongman Khalifa Haftar on Sunday as his troops approached the gates of Tripoli after air raids overnight. Haftar’s self-proclaimed Libyan National Army, galvanised by victories in its eastern stronghold and in the country’s desert south, announced an offensive early this month to seize the capital from the UN-recognised administration of Fayez al-Sarraj. But his forces have faced fierce resistance from armed groups backing the Tripoli-based Government of National Accord (GNA), including powerful factions from the western city of Misrata. Also Read – Saudi Crown Prince ‘snubbed’ Pak PM, recalled jet from USThe bloodshed has derailed efforts to bring peace to a country where jihadists and people smugglers have exploited the chaos unleashed by the NATO-backed overthrow of dictator Moamer Kadhafi in 2011. At least 227 people have been killed since Haftar’s forces launched their offensive, the World Health Organisation said Sunday, adding that a further 1,128 have been wounded. Clashes intensified on Saturday when forces loyal to the GNA announced a counter-attack. Also Read – Record number of 35 candidates in fray for SL Presidential polls”We have launched a new phase of attack. Orders were given early this morning to advance and gain ground,” said Mustafa al-Mejii, a spokesman for GNA forces. Sustained rocket and shellfire could be heard in several districts of Tripoli on Saturday, after several days of less intense fighting and stalemate on the ground. Explosions were heard from the city centre overnight, and some witnesses reported air strikes. Pope Francis, delivering his traditional Easter message, called for an end to “conflict and bloodshed” that was killing “defenceless people” in Libya. “I urge the parties involved to choose dialogue over force and to avoid reopening wounds left by a decade of conflicts and political instability,” he said. Tripoli air traffic was suspended overnight to Sunday for “security reasons”, the city’s only operating airport said Sunday. At least two flights were re-routed from Mitiga airport to Misrata, more than 200 kilometres (125 miles) to the east, the airport’s authorities said on their Facebook page. They said flights had resumed early in the morning to Mitiga, east of the capital. The former military airbase was hit by an air strike on April 8, claimed by the LNA, and has since only operated between 5:00 pm and 8:00 am (1500 and 0600 GMT). The GNA counter-attack put pro-government forces back in control of Ain Zara, in the southern suburbs of Tripoli, where an AFP team confirmed pro-GNA forces had advanced, shifting the front line a few kilometres south. GNA spokesman Mejii told AFP on Sunday morning that “after a long day of military success, our forces are consolidating their (new) positions.” Some witnesses spoke of air raids and drones, but Mejii said the blasts were caused by strikes from LNA helicopters aimed at “terrorising civilians”. He said they had not caused any casualties but had taken place away from the front lines, without offering any further details. Military sources say the ageing Soviet and Russian fighter jets used by both sides are not equipped to carry out night time strikes, but Mejii said Haftar’s forces have a helicopter with night vision capabilities. The UN’s Libya envoy warned Thursday of “a widening conflagration” in the North African country. Ghassan Salame told AFP that “international divisions” prior to the assault on Tripoli had emboldened Haftar, who is backed by Russia and seen by his allies Egypt and the United Arab Emirates as a bulwark against Islamists. The White House revealed Friday that US President Donald Trump reached out personally to Haftar, as a push at the United Nations to broker a ceasefire hit trouble. A statement said that Trump “recognised Field Marshal Haftar’s significant role in fighting terrorism and securing Libya’s oil resources,” adding that “the two discussed a shared vision for Libya’s transition to a stable, democratic political system.” Observers saw Trump’s words of praise for the strongman as evidence of US support that explains Haftar’s determination to pursue his offensive to seize Tripoli. On Thursday, Russia and the United States opposed a British bid backed by France and Germany at the UN Security Council to demand a ceasefire in Libya. Russia insisted on having no criticism of Haftar in the proposed resolution, while the United States said it wanted more time to consider the situation.
Varanasi: Dismissed BSF jawan Tej Bahadur Yadav’s nomination as the Samajwadi Party candidate against Prime Minister Narendra Modi from Varanasi Lok Sabha constituency was rejected on Wednesday, poll officials said. Yadav was served notices Tuesday by the Varanasi returning officer over discrepancies in the two sets of nomination papers submitted by him. In the first set of papers on April 24, he had mentioned that he was dismissed from the Border Security Force. Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss account details under automatic exchange framework On April 29 he submitted a second set of papers this time as the Samajwadi Party nominee for the Lok Sabha seat but did not give out this information. He was also required to submit a no-objection certificate from the BSF, giving reasons for his dismissal. Yadav accused the BJP of resorting to “dictatorial steps” to stop him from fighting elections. “My nomination was rejected today even though I had furnished the NOC from BSF that was required by the RO, he claimed. I am a farmer’s son and I was here to raise the voices of farmers and jawans,” he told reporters. His counsel Rajesh Gupta said, “We will approach the Supreme Court”.
Bamako – Upon the instructions of King Mohammed IV, the Moroccan Phosphates Company (OCP) will shortly launch, in Jorf Lasfar, a fertilizer plant dedicated entirely to the African Market, announced, Wednesday in Bamako, Mostapha Terrab, CEO of OCP group. This unit, to cost some $ 600 million, was announced by Terrab during the Moroccan-Malian economic high-level forum, held in Bamako as part of the visit of King Mohammed VI in Mali.The plant’s production, conducted by the OCP, amounts to one million tons of fertilizers per year, and will be exported exclusively to Africa, Terrab added. King Mohammed VI, insisted that the production of the plant be exported exclusively to Africa, he said.The King began on Tuesday an official visit to the Republic of Mali, the first leg of an African tour that will take the Sovereign to Côte d’ Ivoire, Guinea, and Gabon.
Junior guard Ameryst Alston (14) attempts a layup during a game against Pittsburgh on Dec. 3 at the Schottenstein Center. OSU lost, 78-74.Credit: James Grega, Jr. / Asst. sports editorDespite boasting two of the top scorers in the nation, the Ohio State women’s basketball has as many losses as wins heading into a matchup with the Winthrop Eagles.The Buckeyes are 4-4 for the season after losing 78-74 at home against Pittsburgh. Coach Kevin McGuff said the team still has work to do on defense as it moves forward in the season.“We’re just not good enough defensively,” McGuff said. “We have to get better on the floor for us to make progress.”Junior guard Cait Craft shared the same sentiment as McGuff and said a lack of solid defense throughout games has been a weakness for OSU.“We don’t play defense like we want to win,” Craft said. “We’ve proved we can score the basketball, but if you can’t defend, it doesn’t matter who you play, you’re always going to be vulnerable.”Craft added that she and junior guard Ameryst Alston have tried to take on roles of leadership this season. One thing the pair has tried to instill within the young team is a sense of confidence on the court.“It’s more frustrating than anything because we know we’re capable,” Craft said. “We could beat anybody we’ve played so far and we just have been losing to teams just basically off pride.”Freshman guard Kelsey Mitchell continues to be on top of the Buckeyes on offense, as she leads the team in scoring, averaging 26.3 points per game, and leads OSU in field goal attempts per contest at 22.1. McGuff said he realizes how much work Mitchell does, but added that she feels comfortable in that role.“I’m asking a lot of Kelsey but Kelsey wants a lot to be asked of her,” McGuff said. “There’s a lot being asked of her and we need her and she knows that.”Mitchell ranks fourth in the nation in scoring while Alston comes in at 13th, averaging 23 points per game. Pittsburgh coach Suzie McConnell-Serio said after the OSU game that the combination of Alston and Mitchell can create problems for opposing defenses.“Watching Kelsey Mitchell get to the rim with the ease in every game she has played was amazing,” McConnell-Serio said. “Alston is one of the craftiest guards I’ve ever seen — the two of them are so dangerous with the ball in their hands.”Freshman forward Alexa Hart is expected to have an impact defensively for the Buckeyes as well. Hart leads OSU in rebounding and blocked shots, averaging 8.5 and four respectively per contest. McGuff said there are plans to use Hart more as she continues to improve.“I think she continues to get better,” McGuff said. “We’re going to ask a lot more of her because we need more out of her. I think the more we ask of her then the quicker she’s going to get where we need her.”The Buckeyes could enter the game against the Eagles without redshirt-sophomore forward Kalpana Beach. McGuff said Beach is still being monitored following a leg injury suffered in last week’s Paradise Jam tournament, but added that there is chance she could see playing time.“I think it’s a possibility for Sunday,” McGuff said. “If not that one then good chance the one after that, but she would be day-to-day at this point.”Beach missed the past two seasons with ACL injuries.OSU is scheduled to play Winthrop (S.C.) on Sunday at 2 p.m. at the Schottenstein Center.
KUSI Newsroom, KUSI Newsroom Mayor Faulconer orders Public Utilities Department to investigate every customer complaint of high water bills Posted: February 1, 2018 February 1, 2018 SAN DIEGO (KUSI) — Mayor Kevin Faulconer has directed the city’s Public Utilities Department to investigate every complaint of high water bills after some residents have noticed unexplained skyrocketing charges in recent months.The move is the latest in the city’s response to the complaints that have been covered by local media. City Councilwoman Barbara Bry on Wednesday asked the city auditor to look into the utility department’s billing procedures.So far, city officials have discovered several factors that could contribute to high water bills: a 6.9 percent rate increase that took effect on Aug. 1, a one-time billing schedule change that extended the normal 60-day billing period to up to 70 days late last year, warmer months that could contribute to increased usage, meter reading inconsistencies and leaks in homes and irrigation systems, according to the mayor’s office.“San Diegans need to be able to trust that their bills are correct — and that every cent they pay goes to ensuring we have safe, reliable water,” Faulconer said. “I’ve directed our Public Utilities Department to review every complaint to ensure that nobody is being overcharged and to correct any mistakes immediately.”In one case, for example, a resident’s bill jumped from around $200 in February 2016 to more than $1,000 in the most recent billing cycle, with no increase in usage, Fox 5 reported.Those with questions or concerns about their water bill can contact the utilities department at (619) 515-3500 or email@example.com. Categories: Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter
Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享Kenai Peninsula Stream Watch volunteers will be kicking off the first day of the beach clean-up and fitness series ‘trash-ercise’, on Tuesday, July 10. Stream Watch Started in 1994 by a group of concerned citizens and the Chugach National Forest, this volunteer driven program has grown from a grassroots collective of 10 to a volunteer movement of 180+ volunteers who are making a difference for rivers on Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula. Volunteers receive all of the training and supplies, including volunteer campsites, to share information on river protection while completing hands-on projects on the Kasilof, Kenai and Russian Rivers. According to Stream Watch it’s “a *shore* way to keep our community clean and hearts healthy.” Stream Watch will provide trash bags to volunteers. The ‘trash-ercise’ series will take place on every Tuesday through July and August. The series is open to runners, walkers, or fat bikers who volunteer their time to pick up beach litter. Volunteers will meet each week at the North Kasilof Beach. From Soldotna, head south on Sterling Highway for 13.5 miles. Take a right onto K-Beach Road, and in 4.8 miles turn left onto Kasilof Beach Stub. For any questions, please call (907) 260-5449 x 1205. Photo courtesy of Stream Watch
Due to the winds, trees continue to fall in and along the road creating hazardous driving conditions. The pilot car escorts will remain in place until the wind event stops even though fire activity is low at the moment. If you travel on the highway, please use caution and observe the direction of the pilot car drivers. Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享Winds were gusty Sunday along the Sterling Highway and are predicted to continue blowing through Monday. In many areas adjacent to the highway, the fire burned very hot resulting in trees weakened by fire damage. Conditions are still dynamic and can change quickly. Delays can last from 45 minutes up to a several hours at times.
Former National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) president Syed Ali Raza. Photo: DawnPakistan’s National Accountability Bureau (NAB) on Friday arrested former National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) president Syed Ali Raza on charges of corruption in NBP’s Bangladesh branch, reports the Dawn. According to NAB officials, the Bangladeshi citizens involved in the corruption scandal include Saleemullah, Pradeep and Qazi Nizam, adds the English-language daily of Pakistan. The NAB had filed a reference against the former NBP chief and other officials for allegedly misusing their authority by granting and revising financing facilities in the NBP Bangladesh branch that caused a loss of $185 million to the national exchequer, it also says. Implementing the high court’s orders, the NAB arrested Raza and the co-accused, including Imran Butt and general manager Bangladesh Waseem Khan.During a hearing of the bail plea initiated by the former bank chief, NAB apprised the court about the losses inflicted on the national treasury by the accused.NAB further told the court that 16 individuals had been nominated in the corruption reference in all, adding that Raza and former senior executive vice president Zubair Ahmed had been granted bail earlier.
(PhysOrg.com) — Researchers from the Nichia Corporation in Tokushima, Japan, have set an ambitious goal: to develop a white LED that can replace every interior and exterior light bulb currently used in homes and offices. The properties of their latest white LED – a luminous flux of 1913 lumens and a luminous efficacy of 135 lumens per watt at 1 amp – enable it to emit more light than a typical 20-watt fluorescent bulb, as well as more light for a given amount of power. With these improvements, the researchers say that the new LED can replace traditional fluorescent bulbs for all general lighting applications, and also be used for automobile headlights and LCD backlighting. Design improvements All three white LEDs are based on a blue LED die, which is coated with a yellow phosphor to achieve a wider emission spectrum. When blue emission from the LED die mixes with the yellow fluorescence from the phosphor, the device produces white light. Since the red part of the emitted spectrum was initially low, the researchers also added some red phosphor to enhance the red emission and create a more balanced spectra. Overall, the researchers noted that the color reproduction in this design is the highest of all white light sources.To optimize the luminous efficacy, the researchers focused on a key problem of LEDs: the electrodes tend to absorb some of the light that could otherwise exit the device and increase its luminosity. To reduce absorption at the electrode, the researchers used an indium-tin oxide contact as one of the electrodes, and also used a patterned sapphire substrate to scatter the light so that it could more efficiently exit the device. The researchers also optimized the device to reduce the operating voltage from 3.08 to 2.80 V.With these design improvements and the resulting enhancements in luminous efficacy, the new white LEDs provide further evidence that solid-state lighting can meet a wide variety of our future lighting requirements. Narukawa said that, although these LEDs are expensive compared to commercialized LEDs, he predicts that the price will come down in the future. He also plans to further enhance the luminous efficacy of the white LEDs for general lighting applications. Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. The cross-sectional structure of (a) a conventional LED and (b) a new high efficacy LED with the patterned sapphire substrate and ITO contact as p-type electrode, which reduce the optical absorption and improve the extraction efficiency. Credit: Yuko Narukawa, et al. The Nichia researchers, Yukio Narukawa, et al., have published the results in a recent study in the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. The team fabricated three types of high-luminous efficacy white LEDs, each of which utilized a variety of improvements in device structure to improve their luminosity, or brightness, and reduce their operating voltage.The researchers focused on two measurement criteria. One was luminous flux (measured in lumens), which measures the light’s luminosity as perceived by the human eye, whose sensitivity varies for different wavelengths. The second criteria was luminous efficacy (measured in lumens per watt), which measures the amount of luminous flux achieved with a given amount of power. By the numbersBriefly looking at the history of a few different types of light sources helps provide some context for the LED’s recent rapid progress. The incandescent bulb, which was developed in 1879, had an initial luminous efficacy of 1.5 lm/W, which improved to 16 lm/W over the next 130 years. Fluorescent bulbs, first developed in 1938, achieved a luminosity increase of 50 to 100 lm/W over the next 60 years. The progress of white LEDs is much more pronounced: since their commercialization in 1996, white LEDs’ luminous efficacy has increased from 5 lm/W to today’s commercial white LED of 150 lm/W, the highest luminous efficacy of all white light sources. The theoretical limit for white LEDs is about 260-300 lm/W.Now, the Nichia researchers have taken the white LED’s luminous efficacy a step further, achieving values as high as 265 lm/W at 5 mA of current, or 249 lm/W at 20 mA, values that nearly reach the theoretical limit. However, the downside of this specific design is that the luminous flux is quite low, about 14.4 lm. By modifying the design, the researchers demonstrated two other white LEDs: one with values of 203 lm and 183 lm/W at 350 mA, and one (as mentioned above) with values of 1913 lm and 135 lm/W at 1 A. This last white LED was fabricated by connecting four high-power blue LED dies in series. More information: Yukio Narukawa, et al. “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy.” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 354002 (6pp). DOI:10.1088/0022-3727/43/35/354002• PhysOrg.com iPhone / iPad Apps• PhysOrg.com Audio Podcasts / iTunes• PhysOrg.com Android apps (new version available)• Join PhysOrg.com on Facebook!• Follow PhysOrg.com on Twitter! Explore further Citation: White LEDs with super-high luminous efficacy could satisfy all general lighting needs (2010, August 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-08-white-super-high-luminous-efficacy.html The history of luminous efficacy in different types of lighting shows the rapid improvements in white LEDs. The years in which the white light sources were developed are also shown. Credit: Yukio Narukawa, et al. Universal Display First to Achieve 30 Lumens Per Watt White OLED This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.