‘Viral history’ tool VirScan offers new insights into antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 Medical, political analysts ponder Trump’s coronavirus battle, and what it means for the president and the nation Related People who survive serious COVID-19 infections have long-lasting immune responses against the virus, according to a new study led by researchers at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).The study, published in Science Immunology, offers hope that people infected with the virus will develop lasting protection against reinfection. The study also demonstrates that measuring antibodies can be an accurate tool for tracking the spread of the virus in the community.The immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. “But there is a big knowledge gap in terms of how long these antibody responses last,” said Richelle Charles, an investigator in the Division of Infectious Diseases at MGH and a senior author of the paper. To find out, she and her colleagues obtained blood samples from 343 patients with COVID-19, most of whom had severe cases. The blood samples were taken up to four months after a patient’s symptoms emerged. The blood’s plasma was isolated and applied to laboratory plates coated with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus’ “spike” protein, which attaches to cells, leading to infection. The team studied how different types of antibodies in the plasma bound to RBD. The results were compared to blood samples obtained from more than 1,500 individuals prior to the pandemic.The researchers found that levels of an antibody called immunoglobulin G (IgG) remained elevated in infected patients for four months and were associated with the presence of protective neutralizing antibodies, which also demonstrated little decrease in activity over time.“That means that people are very likely protected for that period of time,” said Charles. “We showed that key antibody responses to COVID-19 do persist.”They also found that measuring IgG was highly accurate in identifying infected patients who had symptoms for at least 14 days. Since the standard PCR (nasal swab) test for SARS-CoV-2 loses sensitivity over time, augmenting it with a test for antibodies in patients who have had symptoms for at least eight days (at which time 50 percent are producing antibodies) will help identify some positive cases that might otherwise be missed, said Charles, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS). When COVID and the election collided Infection detection In another finding, Charles and her colleagues showed that people infected with SARS-CoV-2 had immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses that were relatively short-lived, declining to low levels within about two and a half months or less, on average.“We can say now that if a patient has IgA and IgM responses, they were likely infected with the virus within the last two months,” said Charles.Knowing the duration of the immune response by IgA and IgM will help scientists obtain more accurate data about the spread of SARS-CoV-2, explained co-senior author of the study Jason Harris, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at MGH, and an associate of pediatrics at HMS.“There are a lot of infections in the community that we do not pick up through PCR testing during acute infection, and this is especially true in areas where access to testing is limited,” he said. “Knowing how long antibody responses last is essential before we can use antibody testing to track the spread of COVID-19 and identify ‘hot spots’ of the disease.”Lead authors of the paper are Anita Iyer, a postdoctoral fellow at MGH, and Forrest K. Jones, a doctoral student in infectious disease epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.Funding was provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and MassCPR.
This post is co-authored by Louise Koch, Corporate Sustainability Director, Europe, Middle East & Africa, Dell EMC.We are at a tipping point in human history with two major trends coming together. On one side, we have the dawn of the digital era which will transform business and society in many ways. On the other side, we are facing global sustainability challenges on a scale that requires global and local action. Every year, we use more resources than the earth can regenerate. What use is all this digital innovation if we won’t be there to see it?We believe that digital solutions hold the potential to be a significant driver of sustainable development and progress towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement. However, this can only be realized through collaboration between the industry, governments, and civil society in a joint effort to minimize the footprint and maximize the positive impact of technology for people and environment.This week, Dell Technologies announced our call to action for sustainable IT public procurement, urging European Governments and the IT industry to work together to ensure that the €45 billion of public money that currently goes into IT procurement, also drives increased sustainability across the region and in global supply chains. We have always recognized the importance of sustainable technology and we are proud to champion this vitally important initiative at a time when organizations and individual citizens are increasingly concerned about social and environmental issues.Right now, we have a major opportunity to influence transformation towards a more sustainable, circular economy therefore the time for action is now!Call for collaborationWe know from our own conversations with customers that governments, businesses and even citizens are pushing for greater sustainability, good working conditions and reduced waste. But, until now, most IT procurement decisions have been made upon cost grounds only, with limited consideration of the impact upon the local or global environment.A recent report on sustainability in public procurement of IT in Europe by the research agency Oxford Analytica points to a number of barriers to progress. These include, limited awareness among public procurement professionals on existing industry best-practice and sustainability standards, as well as ongoing difficulties in developing and applying clear and relevant criteria to include lifecycle considerations and supply chain responsibility in public procurement of IT. The report also recommends a collaborative approach to enhance the dialogue between EU and government stakeholders, public procurers, and the IT industry.With around €1.8tn of European public spending often going to the cheapest contracts, it’s time to question the old logic and ensure that contracts are awarded not only to benefit the budget, but also to drive progress towards national sustainability commitments.Today we’re calling on the following key players to drive greater sustainability in public procurement:The European Commission: To help develop guidelines for the implementation of social and environmental sustainability in public IT procurement contracts, in close collaboration with industry, civil society, and national government stakeholders, by providing key insights into public procurement and sustainability in the region and helping to build capabilities to empower public procurement authorities to implement the required criteria.National Governments: To promote the use of sustainability criteria as a default in public procurement, in line with international frameworks from the EU, UN, OECD, and the Responsible Business Alliance (RBA), whilst fostering industry collaboration to better understand sustainability challenges and opportunities and developing national programs to increase awareness and capacity building.IT Industry: To continuously drive improvements in environmental and social sustainability in products, operations, and the supply chain, and engage with EU Commission and national governments to share best practices and innovations for enhancing sustainability across the IT lifecycle.We are proud to do our partSustainability and corporate responsibility aren’t PR-exercises. As a European business community, we need to actively support and instigate genuine action from both public and private sector partners on sustainability. By driving market demand for sustainable IT products, a cumulative step-change in impact can be achieved.At Dell Technologies, we put sustainability at the heart of everything we do. A central part of our circular design approach is to consider sustainability at every stage of a product’s lifecycle – from the initial design concept to its use and eventual recycling. Our goal is to achieve zero waste by ensuring that every part of our products can be reused or recycled, and we’re making big strides towards it. For example, more than 90 percent of a Dell laptop is recyclable.We launched our sustainability strategy in 2013 – with 22 ambitious goals across four key pillars to achieve by 2020 – working to achieve the following goals:Build sustainable and ethical supply chains.Care for the environment through design, planning and recycling in our products and operations.Strengthen local communities and transform lives with technology through partnerships with non-profits around the globe.Cultivate a truly diverse and inclusive culture where all team members contribute fully with their talents and innovative ideas.From recycling the plastic in old electronics for new computers, to turning ocean-bound plastics into recyclable packaging, Dell Technologies is a world leader in establishing greater sustainability in the supply chain and realizing the associated benefits across the wider business. We are proud of our work in this area, and in addition to being recognized by the CSR Impact Awards, RCBC Environmental Awards and Fortune’s Change the World; Dell Technologies has been included in The 2019 World’s Most Ethical Companies List for six consecutive years!It’s a shared responsibilityBy significantly driving up demand for sustainable offerings, a cumulative step-change can be achieved, though it won’t be a small step, by any means. It will require increased awareness among public buyers of the positive impact upon business and the environment, alongside a concurrent global shift in mindset that looks beyond price to favor a more holistic perspective towards procurement.This is very much a call for collaboration as no one business, organisation or public entity can shift the needle alone. As such, we’re committed to working together with our customers, colleagues and society to build a better, more sustainable future. We have one chance to act – to initiate a global sustainability movement which can bring tangible benefits to everyone – and the time is NOW.To answer our call to action and join us as we move towards a more sustainable future, visit the News Release.For more information on our social impact commitment, visit the Dell Technologies Social Impact space.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________About the co-authorLouise Koch is the Corporate Sustainability Director for Dell EMC in Europe, Middle East and Africa.Her work is driven by a passion to build a better world through business. Louise believes that business holds an unlimited potential to develop sustainable solutions by activating the power of innovation, business thinking, and global relations.Louise is the focal point for Dell’s corporate sustainability in EMEA, working closely with colleagues, customers and partners to share and develop Dell’s corporate sustainability program and identify new opportunities for business development through sustainability. As part of this role, Louise is driving a team of CSR Leads across Europe, providing insights for global strategy development in Dell, and engaging in government affairs dialogue on sustainable development policies, including advancing circular economy and sustainability in public procurement.Louise is an appointed member of the Danish Government’s Council for Sustainable Business & the UN Global Goals and serves as the Chairman of the Sustainability Council in the IT Industry Association in Denmark as well as a member of the Sustainability Council of the IT & Tele Industry Association in Sweden. In both positions, she is actively involved in policy dialogue with a particular focus on advancing sustainability in public procurement of IT solutions.She is also a recognized international expert on CSR and sustainable business development. Louise is a Member of Faculty at University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability in Leadership, and a well-known speaker in media and at international CSR and sustainability conferences across Europe.Prior to joining Dell, Louise was Head of CSR for the Confederation of Danish Enterprise, where she built a dynamic platform for CSR and sustainable business development, counselling member companies on strategic CSR and driving public affairs issues in Denmark and the EU. She also served as a board member of the Danish Ethical Trade initiative and a national expert in the ICC Commission on CSR and Anti-corruption.In February 2016 Louise was listed as the Global 100 Most Impactful CSR Leaders by the organisation World CSR Day. She holds a master degree in Anthropology and innovation from the University of Copenhagen.
The Last Lecture series kicked off on Monday evening in Washington Hall with a talk by Maria McKenna, senior associate director of the Education, Schooling and Society minor. McKenna is also an associate professional specialist in the Department of Africana Studies. Sponsored by the academic affairs department of student government, the series asks student-nominated professors, “What wisdom would you try to impart to the world if you knew it was your last chance?”McKenna said she prepared her lecture by thinking about what she would want to say if she were giving a final speech to her four children.“If the only people who were in this room were my four kids, what would I want them to know?” McKenna said.She then began her speech by reading off a list of quotes and advice from her family and friends whom she asked for help in preparing her lecture. Although the content of each piece of advice differed, McKenna said she found a common theme of “keeping it real” and staying honest to yourself and those around you. She said she realized the importance of this maxim from an early age and throughout the rest of her life.McKenna said she assumed an incredible amount of responsibility in her family at an early age and was afraid to communicate her fears and insecurities to her parents. Ultimately, she was able to find a way to be honest with them and find peace. Even still, McKenna said relationships and life in general are inevitably messy despite what the culture around us says.“The world we live in tells us we have to look put-together,” McKenna said.McKenna said she is able to find happiness in the messiness and imperfection in her life, whether they be a massive pile of dirty laundry or commitments to taking care of others.“The faster we come to realize things are messy, the sooner we will be happy,” McKenna said.According to McKenna, everyone has many identities in life — from roles as family members and friends to jobs and duties — but individuals must not compartmentalize everything they do and risk losing their integrity.“Don’t confuse what you do with who you are,” McKenna said.McKenna said relationships are essential to finding stability in life, citing the support of her husband. When she was plagued with anxiety and considering suicide, McKenna said her husband saved her from despair and made sure she recovered. She said the honesty in their relationship was the basis for everything they accomplished.“You can’t be afraid of telling the truth in relationships,” McKenna said.McKenna quoted former Notre Dame professor Carol McLeod, wife of former Notre Dame basketball coach John MacLeod, who said relationships are a “90/10 deal and not a 50/50 one” and in order to have a successful relationship, you have to be willing to be on both sides of the split.Concluding her lecture, McKenna said when she finally dies, she hopes that people will remember her integrity and her willingness to give her all in whatever she did. Tags: Academic Affairs, Education Schooling and Society, Last Lecture series, Maria McKenna, Professor Maria McKenna
QUEEN CITY HOUSING COSTS 35% HIGHER THAN NATIONAL AVERAGELake Champlain Chamber, VHFA identify housing as a crisis for Vermont’sworking familiesBURLINGTON – Vermont’s Queen City area might be one of the most livable inAmerica, but it’s also an increasingly expensive one, especially forhousing.New figures from ACCRA, a community and economic development researchassociation, released today by the Lake Champlain Chamber of Commerce andVermont Housing Finance Agency, show that the cost-of-living in theBurlington area — Burlington, Essex, South Burlington, Winooski andColchester — for the third quarter of 2004 was more than 17 percent abovethe national average. In the same period in 2003, the area’s compositeindex was 12.5 percent above the national average.In the third quarter 2004, Burlington was higher than the national averagein every category, with the greatest deviation from the mean found in thecost of housing at 134.8%. The city’s utilities were at 117.8%;miscellaneous goods and services at 106.4%; transportation at 109.4%; andgrocery items at 110.4Chamber President A. Wayne Roberts identified housing as a key componentofthe organization’s efforts to attract and retain businesses and theiremployees to the area. “High housing costs are a challenge for thoseseeking to live and work in Greater Burlington,” he said. “For a lot ofpeople relocating to our region, it means a choice between Burlington at135% of the national average and Plattsburgh at 93%.””Clearly, we’re still playing catch-up when it comes to providing anadequate supply of affordable housing, and that’s driving up costs,” saidVHFA Executive Director Sarah Carpenter. “We know this problem affectsindividual Vermonters, their families, our businesses and our economy as awhole. It boils down to a fundamental issue of costs versus wages.Vermonters are having trouble finding affordable housing.”According to the ACCRA data, the most expensive two-bedroom apartment inthenation is in New York City with an average monthly rent of $3,506. Theleast expensive is Hays, Kansas with an average monthly rent of $450.Burlington’s average monthly rent is $1,120. One silver lining in theACCRAreport is that the Burlington area’s housing costs are still lower thansomeother New England metro areas, such as New Haven, Conn. at 149.3%;Providence, R.I. at 168.3%; and Boston at 178.5%. Yet the GreaterBurlington area’s housing costs rank above cities like Miami, Fla. at127%;Hilton Head, S.C., at 110.3%; and Las Vegas, at 130.1%.The Lake Champlain Chamber has identified housing as an economicdevelopmentpriority for the 2005 legislative session, citing it, along with taxburdens, as a chief business competitiveness issue. VHFA offerslow-interest mortgages for qualified homebuyers and provides funding andadministers state and federal housing tax credits to encourage developmentof affordable rental units. Both organizations are members of the VermontHousing Awareness Campaign, www.housingawareness.org(link is external), a state-wide publiceducation effort to build support for housing development.The Lake Champlain Chamber is a participant in the nation-widecost-of-living index, compiled by ACCRA. The ACCRA survey examines theafter-tax cost of a professional/managerial standard of living for 324urbanareas.The quarterly index is available by subscription. Go online towww.costofliving.org(link is external) for additional information. The cost of living datafor the Burlington area was compiled by The Lake Champlain Chamber andEconomic and Policy Resources of Williston. Data are available atwww.vermont.org(link is external). Additional housing statistical information is availableatthe Vermont Housing Data Web site, www.housingdata.org(link is external).
The Vermont House today passed a $544 million package for transportation spending across the state. ‘We are pleased that the House has supported the Shumlin administration’s strong commitment to transportation investments this year’ noted Brian Searles, Secretary of the Agency of Transportation. ‘Increasing our transportation spending helps create more Vermont jobs and grow Vermont’s economy,’ he said.The transportation budget is a $137 million increase over pre-stimulus transportation investments and demonstrates Governor Shumlin’s strong support for improving Vermont’s transportation infrastructure. The plan advances state repair of Vermont roads and bridges and expands rail service. The proposed spending plan for state paving will improve over 100 miles of interstate highways and 135 miles of state highways, and is a 36% ($20 million) increase from pre-stimulus level funding. In addition, to help address the pavement deterioration that is plaguing state roads following this winter’s weather, the bill more than doubles spending on state highway leveling ($4 million for fiscal year 2012 up from $1.7 million). The transportation bill advances bridge repair and replacement to address the large number of structurally deficient bridges. Funding for bridge and culvert repair of $112 million in this budget is nearly double the pre-stimulus level of spending.For rail spending, provisions within the transportation bill will help leverage $80 million of funds from a federal railroad grant which, if successful, will be invested into the Western Corridor of Vermont. This is a critical part of Governor Shumlin’s goal of expanding rail from Rutland to Burlington, and connecting Vermont’s passenger service with New York City and Montreal.‘The Shumlin administration has a vision of using transportation to help boost our economy and increase mobility and highway safety for Vermonters. This transportation bill gets us on the road to the future,’ Secretary Searles noted. ##30##
Your lip smacking adventure starts with West Virginia’s Statewide Farm to Table Dinner on Oct. 3 at the Erickson Alumni Center on the campus of West Virginia University in Morgantown. This celebration includes Appalachian recipes with home-cooked local meat and produce, accompanied by beer and wine cultivated in the Mountain State. A side dish of bluegrass is served by local band 18 Strings. The bonus: WVU’s homecoming is October 4-6, so there is plenty going on! The painted mountains of autumn that surround Mountaineer Countryare rivaled on Oct. 24-27 with the return of hot air balloons during the UniversityToyota Balloons Over Morgantown. Five spectacular launches are planned over thecourse of the weekend, beginning with “Night Glow” on Thursday evening atMorgantown Mall. The magnificent colors of the balloons are illuminated afterdark and make a sensational display. The remaining morning and evening massascensions will take place at the Morgantown Municipal Airport. All events areweather permitting. Thefollowing day, High Ground Brewing in Terra Alta, W.Va. marks Oktoberfest with Bar-B-QedBeast in the beer garden. A full German menu, three German style beers on tap,including a Kölsch, a Märzen and aHefeweizen . . . and, of course, an Oompah Band. More information at https://www.tourmorgantown.com/events/oktoberfest/. The culinary feast continues on Oct. 6 with a colorful show of autumn leaves and decadent evening feast at the West Virginia Botanic Garden in Morgantown. Award-winning chef Anne Hart of Provence Market Cafe in Bridgeport, W.Va. prepares an intimate dinner that promises to be unforgettable. Anne was recently named one of the 50 top women chefs in USA Today! Travel to Reedsville, just 12 miles from Morgantown for the cozy monthly dinner at Modern Homestead. Owners Lucas Tatham, a West Virginia native, and Trellis Smith, a transplant from New Orleans, prepare meals based on new and classic cookbooks sold in their gift shop. The Oct. 12 menu features slow braised tomato based sauce with beef, pork and lamb ragu served over pasta, followed by a pear cake with whipped cream. Plan on staying the night at the 1930s guest house (newlyrenovated and comfortably furnished by Tatham and Smith as well) because Oct.13 is the WV Chestnut Festival, honoring the great American chestnut trees thatonce held a prominent position in the eastern hardwood forests. The smell ofroasting chestnuts waft through the quaint town of Rowlesburg, host of thecelebration. Venture off the beaten path of foodie tours and sink your teethinto the taste of Appalachia! October is hosting a number of ways to devouryour way through Mountaineer Country. Once the balloons have taken to the skies, there are beer tastings on the horizon. The first, Oct. 25, is Drafts on Deckers, an evening of craft beer sampling in the renovated basement of Morgantown Brewing Company. It’s all for a good cause, proceeds benefit Friends of Deckers Creek, a dedicated group of individuals working to restore the 64-mile watershed that meanders through two counties and draws kayakers, rock climbers and wildlife. Mountaineer Country is centrally located in the mid-Atlantic, just2-1/2 hours from the Metro DC market or a short flight on Southern Airways fromBaltimore Washington International (BWI) or Pittsburgh International Airport(PIT) to Morgantown Municipal Airport (MGW). Daily flights from Dulles International Airport (IAD) and Chicago O’HareInternational Airport (ORD) arrive in North Central West Virginia Airport(CKB). Roasted chestnuts at street vendor Whether you nibble, chew or ravage your way through MountaineerCountry, the accommodations are plentiful, ranging from rustic cabins–completewith hot tub and breakfast basket–to boutique hotels situated in the heart ofdowntown Morgantown. Discounted rates are available at MountaineerDeals.com. For help planning your weekend getaway, contact the Greater Morgantown Convention & Visitors Bureau at 800-458-7373 or visit tourmorgantown.com.
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York Two Arizona men were convicted Thursday of scamming $15 million from Long Island-based investors and NHL players in elaborate schemes over the past decade, including a con involving Sag Harbor real estate.Phillip Kenner, a 46-year-old financial advisor, and Tommy Constantine, a 48-year-old race car driver, was found guilty of wire fraud, wire fraud conspiracy and money laundering conspiracy by a jury at Central Islip federal court.“Driven by personal greed, Kenner and Constantine spent years lying to investors and stealing their money, and then attempted to conceal their fraud by repeatedly and brazenly avoiding responsibility, shifting blame, and scapegoating others,” said Kelly Currie, acting U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of New York.Prosecutors said that Kenner bought the Sag Harbor property with $395,000 he took from a player’s line of credit without the victim’s permission and convinced another player to pay $375,000 for a 50 percent interest in the property that was later sold at a loss.Kenner also allegedly solicited victims to invest $2 million in Hawaiian real estate, money that Kenner and Constantine used to pay for personal expenses; $1.4 million Eufora LLC, a prepaid debit card business, but diverted the funds elsewhere; and $4.1 million for Mexican land deals that instead paid for Constantine’s racecar and home.Kenner had befriended a hockey player who was later drafted by an NHL team while the two enrolled at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in upstate Troy, New York, and later advised other players when he worked at a financial firm in Boston, authorities said.Kenner and Constantine face up to 20 years in prison when they are sentenced on Nov. 20. Several of the victims are also suing the suspects for the losses.
Despite the still great heat, some cafes in Zagreb have been serving ice-free drinks these days.Along with the drink, they only got a straw with the inscription “Wondering why there is no ice? It would be more cool if you would do something about global warming. ” The message is a new campaign by WWF, one of the world’s largest and most reputable independent nature conservation organizations, with which they shared a few simple tips on how each of us can reduce climate change on a daily basis.The guests of the cafe could get ice only if they shared a photo of their drink and a message via social networks and thus spread the information to their friends. To begin with, Brewbites Zagreb joined the action, and the action was designed by the team of the Bruketa & Žinić OM agency. “Climate change is a big problem today, and if we don’t do something, an even bigger problem will be tomorrow. With this, we are conducting an action to make people aware of how each of us can help. Don’t just sit back and watch the ice melt! “, They say from WWF Adria.No matter how hard WWF and other environmental activists, as well as various scientists, try, the impression is that citizens are indifferent and look at climate change as a myth. Of course, such an opinion is greatly influenced by various lobbies and media, but again it is up to each individual to be informed and educated, especially when we talk about the future of the Earth, if not for us, then for our children.Responsible and sustainable tourism is the only direction and the very essence of tourism, because if it is the opposite, the destination and resources are destroyed, and so is tourism. you know the famous one: Don’t cut the branch you’re sitting on. Of course, as climate change globally, it directly affects the entire Earth, including tourism. More droughts lead to the collapse of agriculture and a greater burden on the entire infrastructure network, and vice versa when we have more rainfall, rising sea levels, major storms, changing sea temperatures that change the entire Adriatic ecosystem, which unfortunately happens a bit with the arrival of invasive species enemies etc…Do you think that this year’s storms, especially the number of them in a short time, which affected Istria are normal and average? Droughts in Slavonia too? The emergence and spread of invasive species, ie predators in Istria this year due to the warming of the Adriatic, which destroyed the Black Sea fishery, is it accidental? Will the arrival of tropical shark species, if sea warming continues, which are dangerous to humans affect tourism?We have to prepare, says Vjeran Piršić, president of the Eco Kvarner association, agriculture and tourism will not be the same in 20 years. “We can imagine that with rising sea levels, with higher extremes, more rainfall causing rainfall and flooding in our coastal areas, there are longer dry periods – it will not be possible to have agriculture and tourism in the way known so far. It remains to be seen what can be done locally to prevent the possible consequences of climate change” said Piršić in the announcement of a series of lectures: Why do we think that already started climate change is threatening the collapse of the economy in Croatia ?. You can watch the lecture from Pula here, or you can still stick to the status quo and pretend that everything is fine and that climate change is a myth.Climate change is an event, both globally and in Croatia, but unfortunately we do not want to see it. Man is the main culprit, so man can fix things for the better or at least prepare and mitigate the consequences, of course if it is not too late.Related news: VJERAN PIRŠIĆ, ECO KVARNER: THE FUTURE OF CROATIAN TOURISM LIES IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM WHERE NATURAL RESOURCES, BUT ALSO NATURAL OPPORTUNITIES OF A CERTAIN ENVIRONMENT WOULD BE RESPECTED IN THE FIRST RIGHT
Professional baseball started in 1869 in Cincinnati. From those early days, where there were only a few baseball teams to now where we have 30 teams in the major leagues with 25 players each, the question arises: How many MLB players has baseball had since 1869?Bob Hunteman brought this up in a conversation at cardiac rehab the other day. I am willing to bet that most of you have no idea on the number. I didn’t, so I looked it up. According to the official stats, there have been less than 20,000 names that have appeared on major league rosters since the beginning.After you have seen this number, you might wonder why the number is so low. After all, this is the 146th year they have played baseball, and with 25 players per roster and 30 teams, you think this is obviously wrong. Thirty times 25 equals 750, so the math seems incorrect. What most of us forget is that some players play 20 years but only count once as a major leaguer. Also, it shows how good you have to be and how rare it is to make a major league roster.