The effects of temperature on peripheral neuronal function in eurythermal and stenothermal crustaceans

first_imgTo determine whether neuronal function in Antarctic crustaceans is adapted to the low and narrow range of temperatures at which these animals live, we have compared conduction velocities in the peripheral nervous systems of two temperate species, the decapod Carcinus maenas and the isopod Ligia oceanica, and two Antarctic species, the isopod Glyptonotus antarcticus and the amphipod Paraceradocus gibber. Neuronal conduction velocity differs among the species in the order C. maenas > G. antarcticus > P. gibber > L. oceanica. When measured at the normal environmental temperatures characteristic of each species, conduction velocity of the Antarctic peracarid P. gibber is greater than that of its similar sized temperate relativeL. oceanica, demonstrating complete thermal compensation. The temperate decapod C. maenas has a higher thermal dependence of neuronal conduction velocity than either of the Antarctic species, G. antarcticus and P. gibber, but the temperate L. oceanica does not. These data, when collated with published values, indicate that peracarid crustaceans (L. oceanica, G. antarcticus and P. gibber) have lower neuronal conduction velocities and a lower thermal dependence of neuronal conduction velocity than do other arthropods, irrespective of habitat. There is a linear dependence of conduction velocity on temperature down to –1.8°C in all three species. Our data extend by more than 10° the lower range of temperatures at which conduction velocities have been tested systematically in previous studies. The upper thermal block of neuronal conduction is similar in C. maenas, G. antarcticus, P. gibber and L. oceanica at 24.5, 19.5, 21.5 and 19.5°C, respectively. This suggests that failure to conduct action potentials is not what determines the mortality of Antarctic invertebrates at approximately 10°C. The excitability of axons in the leg nerve of G. antarcticus is not affected by temperatures ranging from –1.8 to +18°C. The responses of sensory neurones activated by movements of spines on the leg, however, are strongly modulated by temperature, with maximal responses at 5–10°C; well above the normal environmental temperature range for the species. The responses fail at 20–22°C. The number of large diameter axons (which produce the fast action potentials recorded in this study) is the same in L. oceanica and G. antarcticus, but the median axon diameter is greater in L. oceanica than G. antarcticus. In G. antarcticus, however, there are glial wrappings around some large (>5 µm diameter) axons that may increase their conduction velocity. Such wrappings are not found in L. oceanica.last_img read more

Experimental influence of pH on the early life-stages of sea urchins II: increasing parental exposure times gives rise to different responses

first_imgMany studies into the responses of early life-stages to ocean acidification utilise offspring obtained from parents reared under present-day conditions. Their offspring are directly introduced to altered-pH conditions. This study determined whether this approach is suitable by pre-exposing parent sea urchins (Psammechinus miliaris) to altered seawater pH (~1000 μatm) for several durations, spawning them and rearing their offspring to settlement. Parents acclimated when exposed to low seawater pH for extended periods (>42 d). Longer adult pre-exposures reduced larval survival and less competent offspring were removed from populations earlier than in controls. Control offspring were larger during earlier development stages (2–7 d), but smaller during later development stages (14 + d) than offspring reared under low pH conditions. Juvenile settlement levels were similar across all treatments. After 17 d, offspring sourced from parents pre-exposed to low pH for 42 and 70 d were larger than those pre-exposed for 28 d and ambient sourced offspring directly transferred to low pH. These different responses show that the use of ambient derived offspring utilised in many studies is likely not an ideal approach when assessing larval development responses via morphometric measurements and survivorship prior to settlement. This study also suggests that calcifying organisms have capacities to acclimate and possibly adapt towards conditions beyond natural rates of ocean acidification.last_img read more

Johnny Manziel defends Colin Kaepernick on Twitter

first_imgMarch 24, 2018 /Sports News – National Johnny Manziel defends Colin Kaepernick on Twitter Beau Lund Written bycenter_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailAllen Kee/ESPN Images(SAN DIEGO) — Former Cleveland Browns and Texas A&M quarterback Johnny Manziel tweeted in defense of fellow free agent Colin Kaepernick on Saturday, commending Kaepernick for his work off the field.“This will probably cause an uproar, but I’m tired of the @Kaepernick7 vs myself comparisons and anger,” Manziel tweeted. “Kap is doing amazing things right now changing lives and donating millions of dollars. His impact off the field from a societal standpoint is legendary and straight admirable.”Manziel, who threw in front of scouts from 13 NFL teams at the University of San Diego on Friday, tweeted that he was tired of comparisons between himself and Kaepernick and praised the former 49er’s play caller for “Standing up for people who often don’t get heard and for a race that continually deals with problem after problem in this country.”He also addressed the controversy around Kaepernick’s inability to find a job in the NFL, saying the reasons are “non football based.”Kaepernick hasn’t played in the NFL since before the 2017 season, when he opted out of his contract with San Francisco, despite leading the team to Super Bowl XLVII.Many believe that Kaepernick has been blacklisted by NFL front offices due to his outspoken activism on hot button issues such as race.Manziel has also had problems signing with teams since he was released by the Browns in 2016. A star in college, the 2014 first round pick was derailed by multiple off field controversies and consistency issues during his tenure in Cleveland.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.last_img read more

EXCLUSIVE: Covid has left no-fault evictions ‘dead in the water’, says Shamplina

first_imgHome » News » EXCLUSIVE: Covid has left no-fault evictions ‘dead in the water’, says Shamplina previous nextRegulation & LawEXCLUSIVE: Covid has left no-fault evictions ‘dead in the water’, says ShamplinaThe restrictions on how landlords and letting agents can evict via a Section 21 notice have made them obsolete, the TV star claims.Nigel Lewis20th October 202001,841 Views TV star and evictions expert Paul Shamplina has told The Negotiator that he believes the Covid evictions ban is allowing the government to quietly phase out ‘no fault’ evictions through the back door without scrutiny.The housing minister Chris Pincher has twice said that the government will look at banning Section 21 notices once the pandemic has eased, but Shamplina says its current ban rules mean such evictions are now pointless.“The current measures in place including the six-months landlords must wait to give notice of an eviction mean Section 21 notices are effectively dead in the water, and by the time Covid has passed and we’ve returned to normal, I think the government will quietly dispose of this kind of ‘no fault’ accelerated eviction and – to be honest – I don’t think anyone will notice once the Covid dust has settled,” he says.Referring to today’s report from The Lettings Industry Council on the subject, he adds: “That’s why the TLIC’s four proposals are so important; a balance of power between landlords and tenants need to be struck.”Mediation“Some of the measures, such as the mediation process and the bailiff process reform can be introduced on relatively short-term planning.Shamplina, who is founder of evictions firm Landlord Action, says he is confident that with faster and easier access to justice, banning both criminal landlords and anti-social tenants from the PRS, as well as the improved communication between landlords and tenants through mediation, both parties’ trust in the PRS will increase.“Providing greater legal certainty will lead to further growth within the PRS, as more private landlords will be willing to rent out their properties and tenants will be provided with a broader range of properties they can choose from,” he says.Read the full LTIC report.evictions ban Paul Shamplina of Landlord Action Chris Pincher no fault evictions Section 21 October 20, 2020Nigel LewisWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Hong Kong remains most expensive city to rent with London in 4th place30th April 2021last_img read more

Break down forces second Zumwalt destroyer to return to port

first_imgBack to overview,Home naval-today Second Zumwalt destroyer aborts builder’s trials due to electrical problems December 12, 2017 View post tag: Zumwalt-Class Share this article Electrical issues forced the US Navy’s second Zumwalt-class destroyer Michael Monsoor (DDG-1001) to abort builder’s trials just one day after leaving the shipyard.The future USS Michael Monsoor got underway from the General Dynamics Bath Iron Works site on December 4 but was forced to return on December 5 after experiencing problems with the electrical systems.The problems were caused by a harmonic filter aboard the ship, USNI News reported. According to the US Naval Sea Systems Command, the filters are used to prevent power fluctuations from damaging electrical equipment.The US Navy said the filter issues would not affect Michael Monsoor’s delivery time table.The lead ship in the class, USS Zumwalt, also experienced issues during its testing phase. Delivery was delayed because of the testing of the ship’s complicated Integrated Power System (IPS) which is distributing 1000 volts of direct current across the ship and is being installed on all three destroyers in the class.Additionally, Zumwalt experienced two engineering problems en route to its homeport in San Diego. In April 2017, the US Navy announced that problems with Zumwalt’s lube oil chillers were resolved. View post tag: USS Michael Monsoorcenter_img View post tag: US Navy View post tag: GDBIW Authorities Second Zumwalt destroyer aborts builder’s trials due to electrical problemslast_img read more

Robert Plant & The Sensational Space Shifters Expand 2018 U.S. Tour

first_imgRobert Plant & The Sensational Space Shifters have announced a new series of U.S. tour dates. In celebration of their latest album, 2017’s Carry Fire, the group will hit several music festivals surrounding a batch of headlining dates across North America.The tour will begin September 9th at LouFest in St. Louis, MO, and continue through the month. In addition to LouFest, Plant and the Sensational Space Shifters will appear at a number of upcoming U.S. festivals, including Telluride, CO’s Telluride Blues & Brews Festival (September 15th), Del Mar, CA’s KAABOO (September 16th), and Louisville, KY’s Bourbon & Beyond Festival (September 23rd).Throughout the month, Robert Plant & The Sensational Spaceshifters will also hit Kansas City, MO’s Arvest Bank Theatre at The Midland (September 10th), Santa Fe, NM’s Santa Fe Opera (September 13th), Tucson, AZ’s Centennial Hall (September 19th), Tulsa, OK’s Brady Theater (September 21st), Irving, TX’s The Pavilion at The Toyota Music Factory (September 25th), Lubbock, TX’s Lubbock Municipal Auditorium (September 27th), and Austin, TX’s Austin City Limits Live at Moody Theater (September 29th).All tickets go on sale today, July 17, at 7 p.m. local times via robertplant.com (except for the Tucson show, which goes on sale July 20 at 10 a.m. local). For complete details and ticket availability, please visit Robert Plant’s website.ROBERT PLANT AND THE SENSATIONAL SPACE SHIFTERSCARRY FIRE NORTH AMERICAN TOUR 2018SEPTEMBER9 – St. Louis, MO – LouFest *10 – Kansas City, MO – Arvest Bank Theatre at The Midland13 – Santa Fe, NM – Santa Fe Opera15 – Telluride, CO – Telluride Blues & Brews Festival *16 – Del Mar, CA – KAABOO *19 – Tucson, AZ – Centennial Hall21 – Tulsa, OK – Brady Theater23 – Louisville, KY – Bourbon & Beyond Festival25 – Irving, TX – The Pavilion at The Toyota Music Factory27 – Lubbock, TX – Lubbock Municipal Auditorium29 – Austin, TX – Austin City Limits Live at Moody TheaterView New Tour Dateslast_img read more

Scaling a mountain of trash

first_imgWith half of all U.S. garbage still going into landfills, plastic recycling “a mess,” and public opposition blocking construction of more trash-to-energy plants, the nation’s waste disposal system has a lot of problems but few answers, the author of a new book said Dec. 1.Samantha MacBride, an adjunct assistant professor at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs and author of “Recycling Reconsidered: Present Failure and Future Promise of Environmental Action in the United States,” described what happens to all the stuff people leave on the curb each week and showed that, for plastics in particular, recycling isn’t the solution once envisioned.While recycling for yard waste totals nearly 60 percent, paper 63 percent, and car batteries almost 100 percent, recycling of plastics is stuck at just 8 percent. That’s because manufacturers produce a bewildering array of plastics — polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and high-density polyethylene, to name a few — that can’t be mixed if they’re to be effectively recycled. In fact, she said, the seven types of plastics denoted in the recycling symbols stamped on milk jugs, salad trays, and other containers barely scratch the surface. That’s because category seven is an “all other types” category. The Environmental Protection Agency lists 40 types of plastic.“Plastics are a big, messy, difficult problem,” MacBride said. “It is not a simple subject with no simple answers.”MacBride was at Harvard to discuss “Products, Plastics, Putrefaction, and Power: Rethinking How We Manage Materials to Achieve Just Sustainability.” Her appearance was part of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology’s Trash Talk lecture series.Half of U.S. waste is disposed of in some 2,400 landfills. Though the landfills are greatly improved from those of decades ago, with liners, equipment to capture methane gas, and leachate disposal systems to keep decomposing refuse from spoiling the surrounding environment, almost nobody in the field believes that burying that much trash is a long-term solution, MacBride said.Trash-to-energy plants, which burn garbage to generate power, can be quite clean, MacBride said, with equipment to scrub toxins from emissions. They also have the advantage of being able to handle mixed garbage, though their emissions do include carbon, a concern amid fears of climate change. Public opposition since their heyday in the 1980s, however, has halted construction of such plants, keeping the nation’s inventory of them at 100.Just over a quarter of the 250 million tons of waste generated annually in the United States is recycled. Though sorting some materials, like metal and paper, can be done automatically, plastic has to be sorted by hand, MacBride said.Bottle deposit laws, in effect in 10 states, have proven effective at promoting recycling, with nearly 100 percent returns in Michigan.The latest addition to the municipal waste disposal scene, MacBride said, is composting. Some states, like Massachusetts, mandate composting of yard waste, while a handful of municipalities are beginning to gather food waste and dirty paper for disposal in municipal composting facilities.Another development on the horizon is high-temperature conversion of waste through the pyrolysis-gasification processes that produces synthetic gas that can be burned as fuel or converted chemically into other substances. Though there is great excitement about this process, MacBride said, it is still very expensive and so is financially risky for waste disposal companies.Many environmentalists advocate a more holistic approach, MacBride said, that considers how an item will be disposed of before it is acquired, and that substitutes natural materials for synthetic ones and avoids problematic sources like plastics entirely.last_img read more

Have silicon switches met their match?

first_imgSilicon has few serious competitors as the material of choice in the electronics industry. Yet transistors, the switchable valves that control the flow of electrons in a circuit, cannot simply keep shrinking to meet the needs of powerful, compact devices; physical limitations like energy consumption and heat dissipation are too significant.Now, using a quantum material called a correlated oxide, Harvard researchers have achieved a reversible change in electrical resistance of eight orders of magnitude, a result the researchers are calling “colossal.” In short, they have engineered this material to perform comparably with the best silicon switches.The finding arose in what may seem an unlikely spot: a laboratory usually devoted to studying fuel cells, the kind that run on methane or hydrogen, led by Shriram Ramanathan, associate professor of materials science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS). The researchers’ familiarity with thin films and ionic transport enabled them to exploit chemistry, rather than temperature, to achieve the dramatic result.Because the correlated oxides can function equally well at room temperature or a few hundred degrees above it, it would be easy to integrate them into existing electronic devices and fabrication methods. The discovery, published in Nature Communications, therefore firmly establishes correlated oxides as promising semiconductors for future 3-D integrated circuits as well as for adaptive, tunable photonic devices.Challenging siliconAlthough electronics manufacturers continue to pack greater speed and functionality into smaller packages, the performance of silicon-based components will soon hit a wall.“Traditional silicon transistors have fundamental scaling limitations,” says Ramanathan. “If you shrink them beyond a certain minimum feature size, they don’t quite behave as they should.”Yet silicon transistors are hard to beat, with an on/off ratio of at least 104 required for practical use. “It’s a pretty high bar to cross,” Ramanathan explains, adding that until now, experiments using correlated oxides have produced changes of only about a factor of 10, or 100 at most, near room temperature. But Ramanathan and his team have crafted a new transistor, made primarily of an oxide called samarium nickelate, that in practical operation achieves an on/off ratio of greater than 105 — that is, comparable to state-of-the-art silicon transistors.In future work the researchers will investigate the device’s switching dynamics and power dissipation. In the meantime, this advance represents an important proof of concept.“Our orbital transistor could really push the frontiers of this field and say, you know what? This is a material that can challenge silicon,” Ramanathan says.Solid-state chemical dopingMaterials scientists have been studying the family of correlated oxides for years, but the field is still in its infancy, with most research aimed at establishing the materials’ basic physical properties.“We have just discovered how to dope these materials, which is a foundational step in the use of any semiconductor,” says Ramanathan.Doping is the process of introducing different atoms into the crystal structure of a material, and it affects how easily electrons can move through it — that is, to what extent it resists or conducts electricity. Doping typically effects this change by increasing the number of available electrons, but this study was different. The Harvard team manipulated the band gap, the energy barrier to electron flow.“By a certain choice of dopants — in this case, hydrogen or lithium — we can widen or narrow the band gap in this material, deterministically moving electrons in and out of their orbitals,” Ramanathan says. That’s a fundamentally different approach than is used in other semiconductors. The traditional method changes the energy level to meet the target; the new method moves the target itself.In this orbital transistor, protons and electrons move in or out of the samarium nickelate when an electric field is applied, regardless of temperature, so the device can be operated in the same conditions as conventional electronics. It is solid-state, meaning it involves no liquids, gases, or moving mechanical parts. And, in the absence of power, the material remembers its present state — an important feature for energy efficiency.“That’s the beauty of this work,” says Ramanathan. “It’s an exotic effect, but in principle it’s highly compatible with traditional electronic devices.”Quantum materialsUnlike silicon, samarium nickelate and other correlated oxides are quantum materials, meaning that quantum-mechanical interactions have a dominant influence over the material properties — and not just at small scales.“If you have two electrons in adjacent orbitals, and the orbitals are not completely filled, in a traditional material the electrons can move from one orbital to another. But in the correlated oxides, the electrons repulse each other so much that they cannot move,” Ramanathan explains. “The occupancy of the orbitals and the ability of electrons to move in the crystal are very closely tied together — or ‘correlated.’ Fundamentally, that’s what dictates whether the material behaves as an insulator or a metal.”Ramanathan and others at SEAS have successfully manipulated the metal-insulator transition in vanadium oxide, too. In 2012, they demonstrated a tunable device that can absorb 99.75 percent of infrared light, appearing black to infrared cameras.Similarly, samarium nickelate is likely to catch the attention of applied physicists developing photonic and optoelectronic devices.“Opening and closing the band gap means you can now manipulate the ways in which electromagnetic radiation interacts with your material,” says Jian Shi, lead author of the paper in Nature Communications. He completed the research as a postdoctoral fellow in Ramanathan’s lab at Harvard SEAS and joined the faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute this fall. “Just by applying an electric field, you’re dynamically controlling how light interacts with this material.”Further ahead, researchers at the Center for Integrated Quantum Materials, established at Harvard in 2013 through a grant from the National Science Foundation, aim to develop an entirely new class of quantum electronic devices and systems that will transform signal processing and computation.Ramanathan compares the current state of quantum materials research to the 1950s, when transistors were newly invented and physicists were still making sense of them. “We are basically in that era for these new quantum materials,” he says. “This is an exciting time to think about establishing the basic, fundamental properties. In the coming decade or so, this could really mature into a very exciting device platform.”You Zhou, a graduate student at Harvard SEAS, was co-lead author of the paper in Nature Communications. The research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, as well as an NSF Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award to Ramanathan.last_img read more

2014 Tony Awards FAQ! Everything You Need to Know for the 2014 Ceremony

first_imgThe 68th annual Tony Awards ceremony is almost here! We’ve pulled together some frequently asked questions about this celebration of Broadway’s best so that you can find all of the answers in one place. Where will the Tony Awards ceremony be held? Radio City Music Hall in the heart of Midtown Manhattan. What fun stuff can I do during the telecast? Follow Broadwaycom on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and Tumblr. You can also follow members of the Broadway.com team on Twitter: Editor-in-Chief Paul Wontorek, Managing Editor Beth Stevens, Features Editor Lindsay Champion, News Editor Imogen Lloyd Webber, Photo Editor Caitlin McNaney and Photographer Bruce Glikas. How can I watch the Tony Awards ceremony? Tune into CBS from 8-11PM EST to see the presentation of the major awards and performances. If you are in New York City on June 8, you can watch a live simulcast in Times Square hosted by past Tony nominee Kerry Butler and Wicked star Justin Guarini. Who is the 2014 Tony host? Hugh Jackman! The Tony winner is hosting the ceremony for the fourth time, having charmed audiences in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Jackman starred on Broadway in The Boy from Oz in 2003, for which he won the 2004 Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical. He also won a Special Tony Award in 2012 for raising almost $2 million for Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS during the run of his solo show Hugh Jackman: Back on Broadway. The actor also appeared on Broadway in A Steady Rain in 2009. He will next appear on the Great White Way in The River, which begins performances on October 31 at the Circle in the Square Theatre. Jackman was Emmy-nominated for hosting the Tonys twice and won once (in 2005). Can I watch the Tony telecast if I am not in the U.S.A.? The following international broadcasters will carry the show: CHCH in Canada, Film & Arts in Central and South American and the Caribbean, Sky Network Arts Channel in New Zealand, Foxtel Arena Channel in Australia, Wowow in Japan, ABS-CBN in Philippines and Armed Forces Network Television, which is available to the U.S. Armed Forces stationed outside of the United States. Check local listings for more info. What shows will be performing during the Tony Awards ceremony? As always, there will be plenty of singing and dancing on the telecast. The show promises appearances by the stars of the nominated shows, including divas Patti LaBelle, Gladys Knight and Fantasia Barrino with the cast of After Midnight, as well as the stars of Aladdin, Les Miserables, Beautiful, A Gentleman’s Guide to Love and Murder, Hedwig and the Angry Inch and Violet. The show will feature performances Oscar winner Jennifer Hudson singing a number from the upcoming Finding Neverland and Sting performing a selection from his upcoming musical The Last Ship. The evening will also feature performances from Cabaret, If/Then, Bullets Over Broadway and Rocky, as well as a tribute to Wicked, which is celebrating a decade on Broadway.center_img Who are the presenters at the 2014 Tony Awards? A starry roster of presenters and participants will include Kevin Bacon, Orlando Bloom, Matt Bomer, Wayne Brady, Zach Braff, Kenneth Branagh, Patricia Clarkson, Bradley Cooper, Fran Drescher, Clint Eastwood, Gloria & Emilio Estefan, Vera Farmiga, Will Ferrell, Tina Fey, Tony Goldwyn, Jonathan Groff, Anna Gunn, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Ethan Hawke, LL Cool J, Samuel L. Jackson, Carole King, Zachary Levi, Judith Light, Lucy Liu, Kate Mara, Audra McDonald, Leighton Meester, Alessandro Nivola, Rosie O’Donnell, Zachary Quinto, Emmy Rossum, Liev Schreiber and Patrick Wilson. Where can I find photos, videos and features about the big event? On Broadway.com, of course! Check in during and after the ceremony for a complete list of winners, photos, video and other highlights of Broadway’s biggest night. When are the 2014 Tony Awards? Sunday, June 8, 2014 at 8PM EST. View Comments Who are the 2014 Tony nominees? Click here for a complete list of the 2014 Tony Award nominees. Want to know the nominees’ deep dark secrets? Watch these videos.last_img read more

Spring Rains Good

first_imgAs devastating drought drags on in the Southwest, Georgia farmers are singing in therain.”We got rain just in time,” said John Beasley, a peanut specialist with theUniversity of Georgia Extension Service.”That early dry spell didn’t hurt us too bad,” he said. “What happens inthe next 90 days, though, will have a huge impact on the yield and quality of peanutswe’ll have.”Most early-planted peanuts hit the ground in mid-April. The dry weather came during theearly growth stages, when peanut plants need little water to grow.”Had the drought gone on another 10 to 14 days, we would have begun to see theeffect,” Beasley said.The Southwest drought hasn’t hit the peanut crop yet.”In Texas, they’re still planting their peanut crop,” Beasley said.”Because Texas has about five different peanut-producing areas, whether the price ofpeanuts is affected really depends on what area is affected most.”Until we get later in the season,” he said, “we won’t see any impact.If the rains here had come a few weeks later, we would have seen some movement in theprice already, because we would have seen some negative effect on the plants.”The second round of Georgia’s peanut planting was in May, so those plants were verysmall during the dry weather and weren’t affected.”As we enter June,” Beasley said, “the peanuts planted in April willneed more water. We need consistent rainfall through the next three months to keep thesoil moist so the nuts will develop.”While peanut farmers are rejoicing, many livestock farmers are still waiting for theirshowers of blessings.Droughts in Texas and Oklahoma and grain prices on the roof have helped send Georgiafeeder calf prices into the basement.”The dry weather affected livestock more than anything,” said Bill Givan, anExtension Service economist. “They pretty well have run out of pasture and are fastrunning out of hay. They can’t feed corn — it’s too expensive. So they’re putting a lotof cattle on the market.”With corn prices at top dollar, feeding it to animals is a losing deal.”Broiler contractors and feed lots are cutting back on the number of animals theyput in,” Givan said. “The only way they can combat it is to bid lower on feedercalves, which is what we grow here.”The price of feeder calves dipped to less than half of what they were two years ago.”That’s like giving them away,” Givan said.Rain isn’t the only problem with the corn prices, though.”We didn’t have a really good year last year for corn production,” Givansaid. “But a worldwide increase in grain demand, especially in the Far East, iskeeping prices high.”Everyone is pointing a finger at China. “They’re importing grain now, where they used to be exporters,” Givan said.”They are becoming meat-eaters, and you have to feed corn for good meat.”Givan said the Chinese economy is one of the fastest-growing in the world, markingyearly increases at 10 percent compared to the U.S. annual growth of 2 percent to 3percent.”They also have about one-sixth of the world’s population,” Givan said.”That’s a lot of grain.”With that kind of demand, even rain may not lower grain prices.”Dwindling grain stocks keep pushing the price of corn up,” Givan said.”Georgia is grain-deficient, so we bring corn in from the Midwest at market priceplus shipping prices.”If you have some corn in storage, well, you’re probably grinning all the way tothe bank,” he said.last_img read more